The risk of contracting typhoid increases dramatically during the monsoon. India is one of the typhoid endemic countries.
Typhoid is a life-threatening disease that kills thousands every year. According to WHO estimates, typhoid affected 9 million people and killed 110,000 people worldwide in 2019. Children and people who lack access to safe drinking water and adequate sanitation facilities are at higher risk of contracting typhoid fever. Typhoid fever is endemic in India, contributing to much of the global burden.
What causes typhoid fever?
Typhoid fever is caused by the bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (commonly called Salmonella Typhi).
How isSpread of typhoid?
People usually catch typhoid by ingesting food or water contaminated with Salmonella typhi. An infected person can transmit the bacteria in their poo or urine. Once ingested, the bacteria can multiply and spread through the bloodstream.
What are the symptoms ofTyphoid?
Symptoms of typhoid include high fever, fatigue, headache, nausea, abdominal pain, constipation or diarrhea, loss of appetite, weight loss, and skin rashes.
What test is done to diagnose typhoid fever?
The diagnosis of typhoid fever can be confirmed by blood, stool, or urine tests. IgM test, blood culture, real-time PCR, Widal test, diagnostic tests used for the detection of typhoid.
How is typhoid fever treated?
Typhoid fever can be effectively treated with antibiotics. Commonly prescribed antibiotics include fluoroquinolones, cephalosporins, macrolides, and carbapenems. However, increasing antibiotic resistance makes treatment more complicated. If you are severely dehydrated, you may need to receive fluids through a vein. Sometimes surgery may be needed to repair damaged intestines.
Is there a vaccine to prevent typhoid?
Yes, there are typhoid vaccines that can be given to children from 6 months and adults. However, vaccination does not provide 100% protection or long-lasting immunity.
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