Metastatic Kidney Cancer: New Treatment Approaches Improve Patient Survival Outcomes

Metastatic kidney cancer: prognostic factors and new therapeutic approaches
Metastatic kidney cancer remains an important challenge in oncology.

Immunotherapy, targeted therapies, and combination therapies have improved survival outcomes in patients with metastatic kidney cancer.

Metastatic kidney cancer, also known as metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC), is a formidable challenge in oncology. It is a type of cancer that starts in the kidneys and has spread to other parts of the body. The prognosis of metastatic kidney cancer has always been poor, but advances in understanding the biology of the disease and the emergence of new treatment strategies have given hope for better results.

Talk to The HealthSite, Dr. Indranil Ghosh, Apollo Cancer Center, Kolkata, sheds light on the prognostic factors associated with metastatic kidney cancer and highlights some of the innovative therapeutic approaches that have shown promise in recent years.

Prognostic factors related to metastatic kidney cancer

Performance status: The patient’s overall health and ability to carry out daily activities, as measured by performance state scores, play a crucial role in predicting prognosis. Patients with a good performance status generally have a better response to treatment and better survival results.

Tumor stage and grade: The stage and grade of the primary renal tumor are important prognostic factors. Advanced tumor stage (T3 or T4) and high-grade tumors are associated with poorer outcomes in metastatic kidney cancer.

Time between diagnosis and development of metastases: If it is more than 1 year, the prognosis is better.

Metastatic burden: The extent of metastasis, including the number of metastatic sites and the involvement of vital organs, affects prognosis. Patients with limited metastatic disease tend to have a better prognosis than those with extensive metastases.

Blood parameters: Low hemoglobin, high neutrophil and platelet counts, and high calcium levels portend a poorer prognosis

Histology and molecular subtypes: The histological subtype of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and its molecular features provide valuable prognostic information. Clear cell RCC, the most common subtype, has a poorer prognosis than papillary or chromophobic RCC.

New treatment approaches to fight metastatic kidney cancer

Immunotherapy: Immune checkpoint inhibitors, such as programmed death-1 (PD-1) and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) inhibitors, have revolutionized the treatment of metastatic kidney cancer. These agents help the immune system recognize and attack cancer cells. Immune checkpoint inhibitors, as monotherapy or in combination with other agents, have shown durable responses and improved survival outcomes in patients with metastatic kidney cancer.

Targeted therapies: Several targeted therapies have been developed to specifically inhibit pathways and molecular targets involved in the growth and progression of kidney cancer. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as sunitinib, pazopanib, and cabozantinib have been shown to be effective in metastatic kidney cancer by blocking signals that stimulate tumor growth and angiogenesis.

Combination therapies: Combining immunotherapy with targeted therapies or other treatment modalities has shown promise for improving outcomes in patients with metastatic kidney cancer. For example, the combination of immune checkpoint inhibitors and TKIs demonstrated increased response rates and prolonged survival compared to monotherapy.

New approaches: Researchers are actively exploring new therapeutic approaches, including novel immunotherapeutic agents, personalized vaccines, and adoptive cell therapies. These innovative strategies aim to further boost the immune system’s ability to recognize and eliminate cancer cells, raising hopes for even better treatment outcomes.

To take with

Metastatic kidney cancer remains a significant challenge, but advances in our understanding of disease biology and the development of new therapeutic approaches have improved prognosis and survival outcomes. Prognostic factors such as performance status, tumor stage and grade, blood parameters, metastatic burden, and molecular subtypes help guide treatment decisions and predict patient outcomes. Immunotherapy, targeted therapies, and combination approaches have shown promise in improving treatment response and prolonging survival.

Total Wellness is now just a click away.

follow us on

Leave a Comment